Job hazard analysis (JHA), also known as job safety analysis and activity hazard analysis, is a process in construction project planning that aims to proactively identify the steps in a task, assess the risk level of each step, and assign appropriate action to control the risk.
Hazard Analysis — Lead
Problem:Workers that install and maintain temporary wiring systems on construction sites may face hazards from lead.
Exposure to lead can cause a variety of health problems. Although it has systemic effects throughout the body, some of the most dangerous outcomes are neurological. In adults, overexposure to lead can cause memory loss, headache, irritability, cognitive dysfunction, kidney damage, joint pain, and digestive issues. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has described inorganic lead compounds as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” (WHO, 2006). Lead can enter the body by inhalation, skin contact, or by mouth.
Sources of lead exposure in the construction industry include demolition, bridge maintenance, grinding, cutting, and welding on surfaces containing lead paint. Lead is a common component of many building materials, and lead alloy can be used to solder pipe joints, as a component of ductwork, and in electrical fittings and conduits. Although lead paint was banned for residential use in 1978, it is still legal to use on bridges and other industrial structures. Painters, plumbers, and welders are some of the construction workers most commonly exposed to lead.
Although lead is hazardous to people of all ages, it is especially dangerous to children and women who are or may become pregnant. Lead’s neurological effects are most pronounced in children under 6, who absorb 4-5 times more lead than adults (WHO, 2017). Relatively low levels in children can cause stomach pain, headaches, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and seizures. Lead exposure in pregnant women has also been associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, and mental retardation. Lead can cause infertility in both men and women. Although lead is distributed to all parts of the body, it is stored long-term in the bones and teeth. It can then be re-released back into the bloodstream as a person ages, when they become pregnant, or when they fracture a bone.
It is estimated that about 838,000 construction workers in the United States come into contact with lead on the job (OSHA, 2017). Research indicates that children living in these households have blood lead levels about three times as high as children in the general population (Roscoe et al, 1999). This is most likely due to workers unintentionally bringing home lead dust on their clothing.
Working in demolition, bridge renovation, residential remodeling, or any other area where paint is scraped, sprayed, sanded, or blasted, raises the risk of being exposed to unsafe levels of lead. Performing hot work such as welding, brazing, soldering, or thermal cutting on surfaces that may have been coated in lead paint can release large quantities of lead fumes. Lead can also be present in solder, mortar, tank linings, batteries, and glazes. If you are not sure if the substance you are working with contains lead, consult the Safety Data Sheet (SDS). However, it is important to keep in mind that SDS are not always 100% accurate, and may not exist when performing remodeling or demolition work.
Lead dust and fumes do not have a distinctive smell, so personal air monitoring is necessary if workers suspect they may have airborne exposures. A pump and filter can be attached to a worker’s clothing during their shift, and an accredited lab will analyze it for lead content. Settled lead dust can also be sampled using a wipe sample, which measures the amount of lead on a horizontal surface. Sampling should always be done under the supervision of a professional industrial hygienist.
Your doctor can also draw blood to measure the amount of lead already in your body. However, blood lead levels are not a good representation of chronic lead exposure because lead does not stay in the bloodstream long-term. About 94% of the lead in an adult human’s body is kept in the bones and teeth. Stress, aging, and some health conditions cause stored lead to reenter the bloodstream (ATSDR, 2017). Keep in mind that BLLs measure lead exposure from all sources, including lead you may have been exposed to in your home.
Regulations & Standards:
The current OSHA PEL for lead in construction is 50 µg/m3, averaged over an 8-hour period. OSHA also has an Action Level (AL) of 30 µg/m3, which triggers air monitoring, training, and medical surveillance requirements. OSHA requires that employees with a BLL at or above 50 µg/dL be removed from work if certain conditions are met. However, it is important to note that BLLs significantly lower than 50 µg/dL are associated with neurological problems, organ damage, and cancer.
Federal OSHA Standards are enforced by the U.S. Department of Labor in 26 states. There are currently 22 states and jurisdictions operating complete State plans (covering both the private sector and state and local government employees) and 5 - Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and the Virgin Islands - which cover public employees only. If you are working in one of those states or jurisdictions you should ensure that you are complying with their requirements.
Regulations adopted by a state must be at least as protective as the corresponding federal standard. Work may also be subject to rules of other federal, state and local agencies. Even where there is no hazard specific standard, OSHA provides a general duty for the employer to provide a work site free from recognized hazards.