Job hazard analysis (JHA), also known as job safety analysis and activity hazard analysis, is a process in construction project planning that aims to proactively identify the steps in a task, assess the risk level of each step, and assign appropriate action to control the risk.
Hazard Analysis — Eye injury
Workers who load, unload or transport construction materials and equipment may face hazards from eye injury.
Welding and plasma, air-arc and flame cutting metal may expose workers to eye hazards that may include:
- Eye penetration injury from grinding or chipping welds.
- Thermal burns
- Radiation injury to the eyes
Eye penetration injuries typically result from impact or abrasion with flying dust particulates such as slag or metal chips.
Thermal burns are injuries from radiant energy usually resulting from contact with hot liquids, hot gases, molten metals or infrared radiant heat.
Photokeratitis (commonly referred as arc eye, welder's eye, welder's flash or arc flash) is caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the corneal epthelium of the eyes. Some symptoms include:
- Red eye
- Burning eyes
- Eye pain or photophobia
- Excessive tering
- UV-radiation burns
- Eyelid swelling
- Blurry eye vision
Assessment of eye injuries should be an integral part of the site safety planning process. For example, for any given construction work activity, consider whether you need eye protection and if you have the appropriate shade number for certain welding and burning tasks.
For welding activities, infrared and ultraviolet properties can be attenuated by glass filters determined by shade numbers. In the case of gas welding, the required filter shade number should be 3 to 4 (which calls for goggles). For arc welding and plasma arc operations, a shade number of 10 to 14 needs to be used (helmet protection is required).
Regulations & Standards:
Federal OSHA Standards are enforced by the U.S. Department of Labor in 26 states. There are currently 22 states and jurisdictions operating complete State plans (covering both the private sector and state and local government employees) and 5 - Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and the Virgin Islands - which cover public employees only. If you are working in one of those states or jurisdictions you should ensure that you are complying with their requirements.