Solution Summary: Job Hazard Analysis
Job hazard analysis (JHA), also known as job safety analysis and activity hazard analysis, is a process in construction project planning that aims to proactively identify the steps in a task, assess the risk level of each step, and assign appropriate action to control the risk.
JHA is an integral component of construction safety programs. It is intended to identify and address the existing or potential safety and health hazards associated with each step of work via recommended corrective actions and procedures (figure 1). Through this process, construction hazards can be reduced or eliminated.
Figure 1. Workers partaking in a JHA meeting. (Photo courtesy of CPWR)
JHA documents (figure 2) are typically developed by management teams and used by frontline
supervisors and work crews prior to a work shift as well as whenever the task or work conditions change. JHA documentation can be developed and delivered in traditional paper forms, technological means (via device application) or a combination. In this context, the JHA document is a logging record that highlights potential hazards associated with the task and the controls in place to mitigate them.
Figure 2. Example of a JHA document (Photo courtesy of CPWR)
While the content of JHA documents can vary across the industry, the primary components include the 1) work activity broken down into steps, 2) its associated hazards and 3) recommended controls to reduce or eliminate the hazards. Other JHA informational components can include: instructions on how to conduct JHA, a risks assessment matrix, photos or other visual representations, and referential federal or consensus standards.
The risks addressed is dependent upon the identified potential hazards associated with the work being performed during JHA processes. These hazards include: (but are not limited to) falls, musculoskeletal injuries and illnesses, welding hazards, dust and chemical exposures as well as any form of struck-by injuries.
How Risks are Reduced:
Through thorough assessments, JHA processes can improve health and safety through preliminary hazard identification and assignment of corresponding hazard interventions. Interventions can include the recommendation of elimination or substitution practices, engineering and administrative controls, as well as personal protective equipment.
Jean Christophe Le, MPH - CPWR The Center for Construction Research and Training
Sara Brooks, MPH - CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training
- General Labor
- Brace and assemble temporary structures
- Clear, prepare and fence construction sites
- Compact earth
- Construct and remove sidewalk forms
- Erect and dismantle scaffolds
- Identify, control and remove hazardous materials
- Inspect and use mechanical lifts
- Inspect and use scaffolds and ladders
- Install traffic control markers, barricades and maintain traffic patterns
- Jackhammer rock and concrete surfaces
- Load, unload and distribute construction materials
- Operate concrete mixers, pumps and fire proofing sprayers
- Operate earth boring machines
- Operate pavement cutters and concrete grinders
- Pave and patch concrete and asphalt
- Perform housekeeping
- Perform manual demolition
- Position and join sewer, water and storm drains
- Prepare ground and install landscaping
- Prepare surfaces with hand tools
- Remove commercial carpet
- Rig, load and transport construction debris
- Use power tools on aerial lifts
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Guideline for employers, foremen, and supervisors as well as employees to analyze their own jobs and recognize workplace hazards. It explains what a job hazard analysis is and offers guidelines to conduct step-by-step analysis. Job Hazard Analysis OSHA 3071
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
To obtain information, visit Implementing a Job Hazard Analysis Program